University of California, Riverside



Refers to the portion of H-ITT’s (H-ITT is the company who manufactures and sells the Audience Response System used at UCR) software used for displaying and administering questions in the classroom, and collecting and displaying student answers and related statistics. This software can be used on its own, or integrated with faculty PowerPoint presentations. It is available for free download.

Refers to the portion of H-ITT’s software used for performing statistical analysis on the data collected from classroom queries using the Personal Response System. The software can export data in formats compatible with Microsoft Excel and other spreadsheet programs. It is available for free download.

ARS is an acronym for Audience Response System, and PRS is an acronym for Personal Response System.

Audience Response System
A complete system consisting of keypads (wired or wireless) a base station, a computer, and software that is specifically designed to read voting data from the base station, tabulate the results, and display a graph.

Audience Voting
The specific act of entering a number (or letter) on a keypad (Clicker) and sending that number (or letter) to the base station which gathers votes from all keypads. Some keypads require that user press a send key, but many types of keypads automatically send and number that was pressed.

Handheld devices with buttons labeled as numbers, or letters, or both, that are used for inputting and sending a vote. They can utilize either radio or infrared technology or may even be hard-wired to their receivers. Keypads are sometime called transmitters, handhelds or handsets. At UCR, older clickers have 6 buttons, and newer clickers have 13 buttons.

Infrared (IR)
The Audience Response System in use at UC Riverside uses IR, and more recently, Radiofrequency (RF) signals to transmit student choices, votes or answers from the Clickers to the base station (transceivers). Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. The name means "below red" (from the Latin infra, "below"), red being the color of visible light of longest wavelength. Infrared radiation spans three orders of magnitude and has wavelengths between 700 nm and 1 mm. IR data transmission is also employed in short-range communication among computer peripherals and personal digital assistants. These devices usually conform to standards published by IrDA, the Infrared Data Association. Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared radiation which is focused by a plastic lens into a narrow beam. The beam is modulated, i.e. switched on and off, to encode the data. The receiver uses a silicon photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current. It responds only to the rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter, and filters out slowly changing infrared radiation from ambient light. Infrared communications are useful for indoor use in areas of high population density. IR does not penetrate walls and so does not interfere with other devices in adjoining rooms.

The device, either wired or wireless, that connects between keypads and a computer, thereby acting as an interface. The interface, or base station, accepts input from the keypads (clickers or transmitters) and sends the data along to the data acquisition software running on the computer. It also takes commands from the computer and controls the keypads by telling them when they can send a vote, and when to stop sending votes, among other things. It is also called a base station, controller, receiver or transceiver.

Interactive Presentation
An Interactive Presentation is any presentation that utilizes an Audience Response System, thereby making the audience a part of the presentation itself.

Refers to the infrared receivers mounted in all general assignment classrooms at UCR. These receivers capture answers submitted by student clickers, and transmit it to the classroom computer, where the data is aggregated.

A transceiver (as it pertains to audience response systems) is another name for a base station. It transmits and receives, therefore it is called a transceiver.

Note: Glossary adapted from the Audience Response Pro Shop located at and from definitions gathered from


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General Campus Information

University of California, Riverside
900 University Ave.
Riverside, CA 92521
Tel: (951) 827-1012

Department Information

Computer Support Group
Computing & Communications Bldg.

Tel: (951) 827-3555
Fax: (951) 827-4541